Tag Archives: script

Linux command line language translator

I wanted a command language translator that can be used in bash shell scripts. There are a couple of options available, but none that were versatile enough. A little research resulted in finding that Google Translate offered what I wanted and that there was a JSON interface, which I could use with Perl’s JSON module.

I added a few niceties such as help, multiple source options and a listing of available languages.


tranny -t de ‘I am a citizen of Berlin’

gets this result:

Ich bin ein Bürger von Berlin

and entering:

tranny ‘Ich bin ein Bürger von Berlin’


I am a citizen of Berlin

I created a Google Code project for tranny at: http://code.google.com/p/tranny/

If you need a scriptable translator, give it a try. If you run into trouble or would like to suggest changes, leave comments here or at the project.

# what:      tranny, a language translator
# project:   https://code.google.com/p/tranny/
# copyright: Copyright 2010, Andrew Ault
# license:   This content is released under the  http://code.google.com/p/tranny/wiki/license MIT License.
# Uses the JSON module from CPAN. To install: "sudo cpan JSON"

use strict;
use warnings;
use POSIX;
use Getopt::Std;
use JSON;
use LWP;

require 'sys/ioctl.ph';
die "no TIOCGWINSZ " unless defined &TIOCGWINSZ;

my $original;
my $winsize;
my $has_tty = 1;
my ( $screen_rows, $screen_cols, $screen_xpixels, $screen_ypixels );

my %languages = (
				  'afrikaans'      => 'af',
				  'albanian'       => 'sq',
				  'amharic'        => 'am',
				  'arabic'         => 'ar',
				  'armenian'       => 'hy',
				  'azerbaijani'    => 'az',
				  'basque'         => 'eu',
				  'belarusian'     => 'be',
				  'bengali'        => 'bn',
				  'bihari'         => 'bh',
				  'breton'         => 'br',
				  'bulgarian'      => 'bg',
				  'burmese'        => 'my',
				  'catalan'        => 'ca',
				  'cherokee'       => 'chr',
				  'chinese'        => 'zh',
				  'chinese simp'   => 'zh-cn',
				  'chinese trad'   => 'zh-tw',
				  'corsican'       => 'co',
				  'croatian'       => 'hr',
				  'czech'          => 'cs',
				  'danish'         => 'da',
				  'dhivehi'        => 'dv',
				  'dutch'          => 'nl',
				  'english'        => 'en',
				  'esperanto'      => 'eo',
				  'estonian'       => 'et',
				  'faroese'        => 'fo',
				  'filipino'       => 'tl',
				  'finnish'        => 'fi',
				  'french'         => 'fr',
				  'frisian'        => 'fy',
				  'galician'       => 'gl',
				  'georgian'       => 'ka',
				  'german'         => 'de',
				  'greek'          => 'el',
				  'gujarati'       => 'gu',
				  'haitian creole' => 'ht',
				  'hebrew'         => 'iw',
				  'hindi'          => 'hi',
				  'hungarian'      => 'hu',
				  'icelandic'      => 'is',
				  'indonesian'     => 'id',
				  'inuktitut'      => 'iu',
				  'irish'          => 'ga',
				  'italian'        => 'it',
				  'japanese'       => 'ja',
				  'javanese'       => 'jw',
				  'kannada'        => 'kn',
				  'kazakh'         => 'kk',
				  'khmer'          => 'km',
				  'korean'         => 'ko',
				  'kurdish'        => 'ku',
				  'kyrgyz'         => 'ky',
				  'lao'            => 'lo',
				  'latin'          => 'la',
				  'latvian'        => 'lv',
				  'lithuanian'     => 'lt',
				  'luxembourgish'  => 'lb',
				  'macedonian'     => 'mk',
				  'malay'          => 'ms',
				  'malayalam'      => 'ml',
				  'maltese'        => 'mt',
				  'maori'          => 'mi',
				  'marathi'        => 'mr',
				  'mongolian'      => 'mn',
				  'nepali'         => 'ne',
				  'norwegian'      => 'no',
				  'occitan'        => 'oc',
				  'oriya'          => 'or',
				  'pashto'         => 'ps',
				  'persian'        => 'fa',
				  'polish'         => 'pl',
				  'portuguese'     => 'pt',
				  'punjabi'        => 'pa',
				  'quechua'        => 'qu',
				  'romanian'       => 'ro',
				  'russian'        => 'ru',
				  'sanskrit'       => 'sa',
				  'scots_gaelic'   => 'gd',
				  'serbian'        => 'sr',
				  'sindhi'         => 'sd',
				  'sinhalese'      => 'si',
				  'slovak'         => 'sk',
				  'slovenian'      => 'sl',
				  'spanish'        => 'es',
				  'sundanese'      => 'su',
				  'swahili'        => 'sw',
				  'swedish'        => 'sv',
				  'syriac'         => 'syr',
				  'tajik'          => 'tg',
				  'tamil'          => 'ta',
				  'tatar'          => 'tt',
				  'telugu'         => 'te',
				  'thai'           => 'th',
				  'tibetan'        => 'bo',
				  'tonga'          => 'to',
				  'turkish'        => 'tr',
				  'ukrainian'      => 'uk',
				  'urdu'           => 'ur',
				  'uzbek'          => 'uz',
				  'uighur'         => 'ug',
				  'vietnamese'     => 'vi',
				  'welsh'          => 'cy',
				  'yiddish'        => 'yi',
				  'yoruba'         => 'yo',

# get window size for country listing
open( TTY, "+;
	close FILE;
# text is from STDIN
} else {
	# slurp STDIN
	local $/ = undef;
	$original = ;

my $ua = LWP::UserAgent->new;
my $request =
  HTTP::Request->new( GET => "http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/services/language/translate?v=1.0&langpair=$from|$to&q=$original" );
my $response = $ua->request($request);

if ( $response->is_success ) {
	my $perl_res = from_json( $response->content );
	if ( $perl_res->{'responseStatus'} eq '200' ) {
		print $perl_res->{'responseData'}->{'translatedText'} . "\n";
	} else {
		warn "error " . $perl_res->{'responseDetails'} . "\n";
} else {
	print $response->status_line . "\n";

sub usage {
	print "usage: ";
	print "\ttranny -f language_code -t language_code [original text]\n\n";
	print "-f language_code (optional)\n\n";
	print "-t language_code (optional)\n\n";
	print "-o original_file (optional)\n\n";
	print "-h this help\n\n";
	print "-l language list\n\n";
	print "Tranny uses Google Translate and requires an Internet connection to work.\n";
	print "Text is translated from STDIN, from the command line or a file with -o.\n\n";
	print "By default,the 'from' language is automatically detected and translated to English (en).\n\n";
	if ( defined $opts{l} && $opts{l} == 1 ) { list_languages() }

sub list_languages {
	my $num_columns = ceil( $screen_cols / 23 );
	my $num_rows = ceil ( keys(%languages) /$num_columns );
	my $row = 0;
	my $col = 0;
	my @formatted_languages = ( );
	foreach my $key ( sort ( keys(%languages) ) ) {
		$formatted_languages[$col][$row] =  sprintf( "%-14s %-6s", $key, $languages{$key} );
		if ( $row == $num_rows ){
			$row = 0;
	for ($row = 0; $row <= $num_rows; $row++) {
		for ($col = 0; $col <= $num_columns; $col++) {
			if ( defined $formatted_languages[$col][$row] ){
				print $formatted_languages[$col][$row];
		print "\n";

Script to create a Kohana instance

This is a copy of the script I use to create an instance of a Kohana project. It works on Ubuntu server (tested with Lucid). Adapt it to your own needs, of course.

#! /bin/bash
# database.php parameters
# make sure this is run as root
if [[ $UID -ne 0 ]]; then
    echo "Not running as root"
if [ ! -d $SITESROOT ]; then
	echo "$SITESROOT directory does not exist"
# change to the siteroot directory
if [ -d $URL ]; then
	echo "$SITESROOT/$URL directory already exists"
mkdir $URL
cd $URL
# create kohana directory
echo creating kohana directory
mkdir kohana
chown $OWNER:$GROUP kohana
chmod g+ws kohana
wget "$KOHANA_URL"
unzip "$KOHANA_ZIP"
chown -R $OWNER:$GROUP kohana
chmod -R g+w kohana
chown $OWNER:www-data kohana/application/logs
rm kohana/example.htaccess
rm kohana/install.php
rm kohana/Kohana\ License.html
rm kohana/kohana.png
# create public directory
echo creating public directory
mkdir public
chown $OWNER:$GROUP public
chmod g+ws public
mv kohana/index.php public/
sed -i "s\\kohana_application =.*$\\kohana_application = '../kohana/application';\\" public/index.php
sed -i "s\\kohana_modules =.*$\\kohana_modules = '../kohana/modules';\\" public/index.php
sed -i "s\\kohana_system =.*$\\kohana_system = '../kohana/system';\\" public/index.php
echo "# turn on URL rewriting
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
" > public/.htaccess
# create Apache logs directory
echo creating logs directory
mkdir logs
chown $OWNER:www-data logs
chmod g+ws logs
touch logs/error.log
touch logs/combined.log
# create utilties directory
echo creating utilties directory
mkdir utilities
chown $OWNER:$GROUP utilities
chmod g+ws utilities
# modify kohana/application/config/config.php
echo modifying kohana/application/config/config.php
sed -i "s\\'/kohana/'\\'$URL/'\\" kohana/application/config/config.php
# create kohana/application/config/database.php
echo creating kohana/application/config/database.php
cp kohana/system/config/database.php kohana/application/config/database.php
chown $OWNER:$GROUP kohana/application/config/database.php
chmod g+w kohana/application/config/database.php
sed -i "s\\'user'.*$\\'user'     => '$DBUSER',\\" kohana/application/config/database.php
sed -i "s\\'pass'.*$\\'pass'     => '$DBPWD',\\" kohana/application/config/database.php
sed -i "s\\'host'.*$\\'host'     => '$DBHOST',\\" kohana/application/config/database.php
sed -i "s\\'database'.*$\\'database' => '$DBDATABASE',\\" kohana/application/config/database.php
# create kohana/application/config/routes.php
echo creating kohana/application/config/routes.php
cp kohana/system/config/routes.php kohana/application/config/routes.php
chown $OWNER:$GROUP kohana/application/config/routes.php
chmod g+w kohana/application/config/routes.php
sed -i "s\\'welcome'\\'/index'\\" kohana/application/config/routes.php
# copy kohana/application/config/profiler.php
echo creating kohana/application/config/profiler.php
cp kohana/system/config/profiler.php kohana/application/config/profiler.php
chown $OWNER:$GROUP kohana/application/config/profiler.php
chmod g+w kohana/application/config/profiler.php
# create Apache virtual site
echo creating Apache virtual site file in /etc/apache2/sites-available
echo "
	ServerName $URL
	DocumentRoot $SITESROOT/$URL/public
	DirectoryIndex index.php
	LogLevel warn
	ErrorLog $SITESROOT/$URL/logs/error.log
	CustomLog $SITESROOT/$URL/logs/combined.log combined

" > /etc/apache2/sites-available/$URL
# finish up
echo "enable site with: sudo a2ensite $URL"
echo "restart Apache with: sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart"

Ubuntu command line: see PDF of a man page

So, you use the command line. And, you’d like to look at a command’s manual page.

Wouldn’t it be handy to open the page into another window, nicely formatted, all typeset and neat? That is exactly what this little script will do.

I keep my personal scripts and executables in ~/bin (the bin directory inside my home directory). My ~.profile file in Ubuntu already had that in the path, if ~/bin exists.

If needed, create ~/bin:

mkdir ~/bin

Create a shell script called ~/bin/gman with these lines:

#!/bin/sh -e
man -t $1 | ps2pdf - > "/tmp/$1.man.pdf"
gnome-open "/tmp/$1.man.pdf"

Make the shell script executable with:

chmod +x ~/bin/gman

If needed, exit your shell and open it back up again. This would be to ensure that ~/bin is detected and added to your PATH.

Then, to use it, just type gman and the command you are interested in, ie. grep.

gman grep

This will show you a beautiful, formatted document: